Here are some of the most important inventions of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, from the cotton machine to the camera.
The phone is a tool that converts voice and sound signals into electrical impulses for cable transmission to another location, where another phone receives electrical impulses and turns them back into recognized sounds. In 1875, Alexander Graham Bell built the first telephone for the electric transmission of the human voice.
There are many important landmarks in the history of computers, starting in 1936, when Konrad Zuse built the first freely programmable computer.
In 1884, Paul Nipkow managed to transmit the image through cables using a rotary disk technology with 18 lines of resolution. Television has evolved over the years in two ways – mechanics based on Nipkow rotary disks and electronics based on the cathode ray tube. American Charles Jenkins and Scott John Baird followed the mechanical model, while Philo Farnsworth, who worked independently in San Francisco, and Russian emigrant Vladimir Zworkin, who worked for Westinghouse, advanced on the electronic model.
4) The car
In 1769, the first self-propelled vehicle was invented by the French driver Nicolas Joseph Cugnot. However, it was a steam powered model. In 1885, Karl Benz designed and built the first car in the world to be powered by an internal combustion engine. In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler developed the internal combustion engine and patented what is known as the prototype of the modern engine and later built the world’s first four-wheel vehicle.
5) The cotton machine
Eli Whitney patented on March 14, 1794 the cotton machine – a machine that separates unwanted seeds , shells and other cotton materials after being chosen.
6) The camera
In 1814, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce created the first photographic image with an obscure camera. However, the image took eight hours of light exposure and then disappeared. Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre is considered the inventor of the first practical shooting process in 1837.
7) The steam engine
Thomas Savery was an English military engineer and inventor who, in 1698, patented the first raw steam engine. Thomas Newcomen invented the atmospheric steam engine in 1712. James Watt improved Newcomen’s design and invented what is considered the first modern steam engine in 1765.
8) Sewing machine
The first sewing machine was invented by a French tailor, Barthelemy Thimonnier, in 1830. In 1834, Walter Hunt built the first (somewhat) successful American sewing machine. Elias Howe patented the first sewing machine in 1846.
9) The light bulb
Contrary to popular belief, Thomas Alva Edison did not “invent” the light bulb, but rather improved it by a 50-year-old idea. In 1809, Humphry Davy, an English chemist, invented the first electric light bulb. In 1878, Sir Joseph Wilson Swan, an English physicist, was the first person to invent a durable bulb (13.5 hours) with a carbon fiber filament. In 1879, Thomas Alva Edison invented a carbon filament that burned for 40 hours.
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. Andrew Moyer patented the first method of industrial production of penicillin in 1948.